Tabular Data

It's the simplest form of data presentation where data are given in a table with proper heading and denominations. There is really no limit to what the tables can contain. You should not expect to get any simple table in CAT but in other exams like IRMA, SNAP and IIFT you might get a set with tabular data. Example1: Lets consider one article published on this site regarding the number of questions asked from different mathematics chapters in last few years.

Mathematical Aptitude - Number of question
CHAPTERS 2001 2002 2003 2003 Retest 2004 2005 2006 Total Percentage
1. Number System 13 13 7 11 4 12 28 88 22%
2. Ratio & Proportion 2 2 2 1 2 4 13 3.25%
3. Percentages 3 2 4 9 2.25%
4. Profit & Loss 1 1 0.25%
5. T.S.D 5 4 1 5 2 4 21 5.25%
6. Linear Eqn 4 2 2 1 2 12 23 5.75%
7. Quadratic Eqn 1 2 2 1 2 8 2%
8. P and C 2 6 3 4 5 3 4 27 6.75%
9. Inequalities 7 3 5 6 1 4 26 6.5%
10. Functions 1 2 4 4 8 19 4.75%
11. Logarithms 1 2 2 4 9 2.25%
12. Geometry 9 10 14 17 15 17 20 102 25.5%
(NB: above table is not correct and given just an example. For the correct data refer to ) In Exam you will be given a table like the one shown above and might be asked few questions like Q1. In which year maximum number of questions were asked from Algebra? Q2. In 2003 which chapter contributed maximum number of questions? Q3. What was the total number of questions asked from Inequalities chapter in the given period of time? Q4. What was the percentage contribution of P and C in year 2004 Many similar questions can be framed from the above table. Lets first consider Q1, A quick look at the table shows that maximum number of algebra questions were asked in year 2006 and the number was 26. Similarly, In year 2003 maximum number of questions were asked from Geometry chapter and the number was 14. Try to answer the other two questions on your own and discuss your doubts at the forum
Example 2: The frequency distribution of monthly salaries of 500 workers in a factory is given below :
Wages 0-49 50-99 100-149 150-199 200-249 250 or more
Number of workers 90 150 100 80 70 10
It is proposed to give an interim relief per month at the rate of 10% of the lower boundary of each class interval or Rs. 10 which ever is more. Then the financial burden (in Rs. )on the part of the factory owner is ? The asnwer is 6250. First try to solve on your own and then read the solution given below.
Example 3 Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below: The Dean’s office recently scanned student results into the central computer system. When their character reading software cannot read something, it leaves the space blank. The scanner output read as follows:
In the grading system, A, B, C, D, and F grades fetch 6, 4, 3, 2, and 0 grade points respectively. The Grade Point Average (GPA) is the arithmetic mean of the grade points obtained in the five subjects. For example Nisha’s GPA is (6 + 2 + 4 + 6 + 0) / 5 = 3.6. Some additional facts are also known about the students’ grades. These are (a) Vipul obtained the same grade in Marketing as Aparna obtained in Finance and Strategy. (b) Fazal obtained the same grade in Strategy as Utkarsh did in Marketing. (c) Tara received the same grade in exactly three courses. Q1. What grade did Preeti obtain in Statistics? 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. D ANS: GPA of Preeti = 3.2 => (F+D+x+D+y)/5 = 3.2 => x + y = 12 So only combination possible is A, A. So Preeti obtained A grade in statistics. Q2. In operations, Tara could have received the same grade as 1. Ismet 2. Hari 3. Jagdeep 4. Manab ANS: (4) Tara received same grade in 3 courses. We already know that Tara has got B grade in one of the subject and GPA is 2.4. So in 3 courses in which he scored same grade is B. So Tara has received the same grade as Manab. Q3. In Strategy, Gowri’s grade point was higher than that obtained by 1. Fazal 2. Hari 3. Nisha 4. Rahul ANS: GPA of Gowri is 3.8 =>3 + 3 + 6 + x + 4 = 3.8 × 5 =>16 + x = 18 =>x = 2 So in strategy, Gowri's grade is C. Rahul's grade in strategy = (4.2 × 5) – 15 = 6, i.e., A. Fazal's grade in strategy = (2.4 × 5) – 8 = 4, i.e., B. Hence, Gowri's grade will be higher than that of Hari. Q4. What grade did Utkarsh obtain in Finance? 1. B 2. C 3. D 4. F ANS: Fazal GPA = 2.4 => D + F + B + P + D = 2.4 × 5 2 + 0 + 4 + P + 2 = 12 P = 4 So his grade in strategy is B. So Grade of Utkarsh in marketing is also B. So for Utkarsh, x + B + F + C + A = 3 × 5 x + 4 + 0 + 3 + 6 = 15 x = 2 So grade of Utkarsh in finance = D.
Example 4: Answer the questions based on the following information.

Unclaimed redemption and dividend amounts for TMF India Ltd.

The amount of dividends declared and redemptions made, which were remaining unclaimed as on the balance sheet data are given below.
Q1. What is the average dividend amount per unclaimed warrants across all schemes for TMF India Ltd.? a. Rs. 1,964 b. Rs. 2,734 c. Rs. 3,822 d. None of these ANS: Average dividend amount 68.59/2509 i.e Rs. 2734 Q2. What is the approximate ratio of the average redemption amount per warrant in TIGF scheme to that in FIBF scheme? a. 10:9 b. 9:10 c. 11:13 d. 9 : 13 ANS: In TIGF scheme, average redemption amount per warrant (Rs.83,000/7) = Rs. 11857.14 In FIBF scheme, average (Rs.13,000)/1 =13,000 Ratio = 11857.14 : 13000 = 91 : 100 » 9 : 10 Q3. Which of the following statement(s) is(are) not true? I. The total amount of unclaimed warrants for TIGF and TIIF schemes is Rs. 48.57 lakh. II. TIIF scheme accounts for more than 60% of the total number of unclaimed warrants. a. Only (I) b. Only (II) c. Both (I) and (II) d. Both are true ANS: (I) TIGF and TIIF = Rs. (3.26 + 42.18 + 0.83 + 2.30) lakh = Rs. 48.57 lakh (II) Total number of warrants in TIIF scheme = 1601 + 48 = 1649 out of total 2578 claims. Hence, it is more than 60%. Q4. What is the percentage of unclaimed dividend amount in TMIP scheme? a. 7.8% b. 5.2% c. 10.5% d. Cannot be determined ANS: Required percentage 68.59 /5.39 = 7.8% (approx.) Q5. A scheme is given the ‘star’ status when it has minimum number of unclaimed warrants for that scheme, among all others. Among the given schemes, which scheme is to be awarded ‘star’ status? a. FIIF b. FIBF c. TIIF d. Cannot be determined ANS: The data on unclaimed dividend amounts for FIIF, FIBF and FIGF are not given.

Line Graph

In first DI chapter we discussed about Tabular Data Representation. Here we 'll try to present similar set of data in a graph.

A line graph is a way to summarize how two pieces of information are related and how they vary depending on one another. The numbers along a side of the line graph are called the scale. Each variable is plotted along an axis. A line graph has a vertical axis and a horizontal axis. For example, if we wanted to graph the number of questions asked from algebra chapter in last 6 CAT editions we would have got a graph line as shown below

X axis shows the year and the corresponding value in Y axis shows the number of questions asked in that particular year. Now few questions can be asked on above graph 1. What was the minimum number of questions asked in any year? 2. In which year maximum number of questions was asked? 3. Between what time periods was the largest increase in number of questions? 4. Based on your observations of the graph, make a prediction about what the number of questions might be in the year 2007. All the above questions can be answered easily except question number 4. Here the line graph is not following any particular pattern so we can’t predict what will be the number of questions in year 2007. Each type of graph has characteristics that make it useful in certain situations. Some of the strengths of line graphs are that:
  • They are good at showing specific values of data, meaning that given one variable the other can easily be determined.
  • They show trends in data clearly, meaning that they visibly show how one variable is affected by the other as it increases or decreases.
  • They enable the viewer to make predictions about the results of data not yet recorded.

Example 1: The graph below is representative of the sales, costs and tax of a certain industry Study the following graph to answer these questions:
Notes: Gross profit = Sales - Cost ; Profit = Sales - Cost - Tax Q1. What is the tax in the year 1998 ? a)10 b)20 c)30 d) cannot be determined ANSWER: c 30 Q2. What is the % increase in gross profit from year 1997 and 2000 ? a)250% b)350% c)400% d)450% ANSWER: b 250% Q3. In 1998, the industry old 850 units. If in 1999, the price per unit increased by 50% , what was the no of units sold in 1999? a) 550 b) 650 c) 750 d) none of these ANSWER: b 650 as 850x= 170,x =0.2.after 50 % increase this becomes 0.3.So in 1999 no is 195/0.3=650 Q4. If this graph represents a kind of an index on which the industry performance can be benchmarked, and if the index started with year 1997 with a value=100, what is the average sales between years 2000,2001 and 2002 ? a) 200 b) 208.33 c) 209.22 d) None of these ANSWER: c 209.22 If in 1997 120x = 100=>, x=5/6,2000 to 2002 average sales implies (250 +225+280)/3 X 5/6 = 209.22 Q5. If in 1997, profits were 3000,what are the profits in 2002? a)3000 b)6000 c)9000 d)12000 ANSWER: c 9000
Graph Comparison Line graphs do not present specific data as well as tables do but line graphs are able to show relationships more clearly than tables do. Line graphs can also depict multiple series which are usually the best candidate for time series data and frequency distribution.Bar and column graphs and line graphs share a similar purpose. The column graph, however, reveals a change in magnitude, whereas the line graph is used to show a change in direction. In summary, line graphs 1. show specific values of data well 2. reveal trends and relationships between data 3. compare trends in different groups of a variable
Now let’s try one more example. Example 2: In the following line graph, Solubility - Temperature relationships for various salts is shown. (The Y-axis denotes Solubility (kg/litres of water)
1. Which of the following salts has greatest solubility? a) Potassium Chlorate at 800C. b) Potassium Chloride at 350C. c) Potassium Nitrate at 390C. d) Sodium Chloride at 850C. 2. Approximately, how many kg of Potassium Nitrate can be dissolved in 10 litres of water at 300C? (a) 0.04 (b) 0.4 (c) 4 (d) 0.35 3. By what % is the solubility of Potassium Chlorate in water increased as the water is heated from 300C to 800C? (a) 100 (b) 200 (c) 250 (d) 300 4. If 1 mole of Potassium Chloride weighs 0.7456 kg, approximately, how many moles of Potassium Chloride can be dissolved in 100 litres of water at 360C? (a) 70 (b) 60 (c) 48 (d) 54 5. Which of the salts has greatest change in solubility in kg/litre of water between 150C and 250C? (a) Potassium Chlorate (b) Potassium Nitrate (c) Sodium Chlorate (d) Sodium Nitrate ANSWERS are 1. (c) 2. (c) 3. (d) 4. (d) 5. (c) Example 3: Use this additional information which provides statistics about the voting population in a country and votes secured by the national party during the above mentioned election Q1. If the population in the country in the year 1989 was 800 mn, how many million votes did the party secure in this election? (1) 159.84 (2) 360 (3) 266.4 (4) None of these Q2. If the population increased by 12% between the year 1984 and 1989, what was the % increase in the % of population that is eligible to vote in the election? (1) 10.24% (2) 12% (3) M.64% (4) 15.50% Q3. Between 1996 and 1998, the number of people eligible to vote increased by 10% What was the % increase in population between 1996 and 1998? (1) 6.28% (2) 4.4% (3) 3.28% (4) Cannot be determined Q4. If in the year 1984, if for even additional 3% of the votes polled for the party meant the party get to have 450 seats in the parliament if the overall population of the country was 800 million in that year? (1) 52.25 mn (2) 15.43 mn (3) Cannot be determined (4) None of these Q5. Which of the following is true? (1) The largest % of votes were polled to the above party in the 1988 election. (2)A higher % of votes to the party in a particular election does not have a direct correlation to the number of seats won by the party in the election. (3) In four of the election, the number of seats won by the party increased over the previous election. (4) None of these. ANSWERS: 1. (1) 2. (4) 3. (1) 4. (4) 5. (2)

Bar Graph

Bar graphs are used to display data in a similar way to line graphs. However, rather than using a point on a plane to define a value, a bar graph uses a horizontal or vertical rectangular bar that levels off at the appropriate level. There are many characteristics of bar graphs that make them useful. Some of these are that:

  • They make comparisons between different variables very easy to see.
  • They clearly show trends in data, meaning that they show how one variable is affected as the other rises or falls.
  • Given one variable, the value of the other can be easily determined.
  • A bar graph is a visual display used to compare the amounts or frequency of occurrence of different characteristics of data. This type of display allows us to: Compare groups of data, and Make generalizations about the data quickly. An example of a bar graph is given below : Above graph shows the number of questions asked from different math chapters in last few years? In Exam you will be given a bar graph like the above one and asked to answer questions like Q1. In which year maximum number of questions was asked from Algebra? Q2. In 2003 which chapter contributed maximum number of questions? Q3. What is the total number of questions asked from Geometry chapter in the given period of time? Q4. What is the percentage contribution of others in year 2004? Lets discuss all the above questions one by one. From the above graph its can be easily found that the number of algebra questions asked during the given time period are 10, 8, 6, 12, 9. So the maximum number of questions asked in a year is 12 and that was done in year 2005. In year 2003 the number of questions asked from different chapters are 8, 8, 12 and 2. So highest numbers of questions were asked from Number System. Similarly try to answer the other two questions.

    Analysis of the Bar Graph

    Now let's look at the components of a bar graph individually. There is a lot of information in this section so you may wish to jot down some short notes to yourself. Graph Title : The graph title gives an overview of the information being presented in the graph. The title is given at the top of the graph. In the above example Mathematics pattern in CAT is the graph titile. Axes and their labels: Each graph has two axes. The axes labels tell us what information is presented on each axis. One axis represents data groups, the other represents the amounts or frequency of data groups. Grouped Data Axis: The grouped data axis is always at the base of the bars. This axis displays the type of data being graphed. In our example year is represented in X axis and it’s the grouped data axis Frequency Data Axis: The frequency axis has a scale that is a measure of the frequency or amounts of the different data groups. Ex: Number of questions in above graph Bars: The bars are rectangular blocks that can have their base at either vertical axis or horizontal axis (as in this example). Each bar represents the data for one of the data groups. Example 1: Number of Engineering Students (in hundreds) at institutions of different kinds is given in the below bar graph. 1.What was the total number of engineering students in 1989-90? (a)28500 (b)4400 (c)4200 (d)42000 2.The growth rate in students of Govt. Engineering colleges compared to that of Private Engineering colleges between 1988-89 and 1889-90 is: (a)more (b)less (c)almost equal (d)3/2 3.The total number of Engineering students in 1991-92, assuming a 10% reduction in thenumber over the previous year, is: (a)5700 (b)57000 (c)44800 (d)None of these 4. In 1990-91, what percent of Engineering students were studying at IITs? (a)16 (b)15 (c)14 (d)12 Answers: 1. (d) 2. (c) 3. (d) 4. (c) In CAT most of the questions are required to be answered from data given in two different graphs/charts. For example try to answer the question on the basis of the following charts. If the land area under tea cultivation in Chaidesh continuously decreased in all four years from 1996 to 1999, by 10%, 7% , 4% and 1%, respectively, in which year was tea productivity (production per unit of area) the highest? (1) 1999 (2) 1998 (3) 1997 (4) 1996 Sol.Tea productivity = Area /production When production is maximum and area is minimum, we can say that tea productivity is the maximum. In such case, calculation of tea productivity for each of the year is not required. Area is the least in year 1999 as compared to that in the year 1996, 1997, and 1998. Also, by observation, production is maximum for year 1999. Hence tea productivity is maximum for year 1999. Choice (1) Example 2: Try to solve the following question. It is taken from CAT 1993 paper Assets are defined as Net Fixed Assets + Net Current Assets + Investments Q1. What is the approximate simple annual growth rate of Total Assets between 1990 and 1993 ? a. 36% b. 12 % c. 9% d. 27% Q2. In any two consecutive years, the growth rate is lowest for: a. Net Fixed Assets b. Net Current Assets c. Investments d. Total Assets Q3. The only item which has shown positive growth in every year between 1990 and 1993 is : a. Net Fixed Assets b. Net Current Assets c. Investments d. Total Assets Q4. Between 1991 and 1992, the highest growth rate is seen for a. Net Fixed Assets b. Net Current Assets c. Investments d. Total Assets ANSWERS 1. b. Simple Annual growth rate is (30-22)100/(22 x 3) = 12% 2. b. In any two consecutive years growth rate is lowest for Net Current Assets as it can be seen from the graph between 1991-1992 3. c. 4.c Example 3 : Study the following graph and answer questions 1. Which year shows the maximum percentage of export with respect to production? (1)1992 (2)1993 (3)1996 (4)1995 2. The population of India in 1993 was (1)800 million (2)1080 million (3)985 million (4)900 million 3. If the area under tea production was less by 10% in 1994 than in 1993, then the approxima te rate of increase in productivity of tea in 1994 was (1)97.22 (2)3 (3)35 (4)None of the above 4. The average proportion of tea exported to the tea produced over the period is (1)0.87 (2)0.47 (3)0.48 (4)0.66 5. What is the first half-decade’s average per capita availability of tea? (1)457 gm (2)535 gm (3)446 gm (4)430 gm 6. In which year was the per capita availability of tea minimum? (1)1996 (2)1994 (3)1991 (4)None of these 7. In which year was there minimum percentage of export with respect to production? (1)1991 (2)1992 (3)1993 (4)1994 8. In which year we had maximum quantity of tea for domestic consumption? (1)1994 (2)1991 (3)1993 (4)1996 9. What approximately was the average quantity of tea available for domestic consumption during the period? (1)324.3 million kg (2)400 million kg (3)410.3 million kg (4)320.3 million kg 10. What was approximately the average population during the period? (1)625 million (2)624 million (3)600 million (4)757 million ANSWERS: 1(3) 2 (2) 3 (4) 4 (2) 5 (4) 6 (3) 7 (1) 8 (3) 9 (1) 10 (4)

Pie Chart

A pie chart is a circle graph divided into pieces, each displaying the size of some related piece of information. Pie charts are used to display the sizes of parts that make up some whole. In a pie chart, the arc length of each sector (and consequently its central angle and area), is proportional to the quantity it represents. Together, the sectors create a full disk While the pie chart is perhaps the most ubiquitous statistical chart in the business world and the mass media, it is rarely used in scientific or technical publications. It is one of the most widely criticized charts, and many statisticians recommend to avoid its use altogether. (Source of above paragraph: wikipedia) Let s first try to put the similar set of data we have used in other charts. Say in CAT07 the number of questions asked from different chapters are Algebra : 6 Geometry: 9 Number System:12 and Others: 3 and the total number of questions in math section is 30. So algebra part consist of 6/30 x 100 = 20% of total questions. And similarly Geometry: 30% Number System: 40% and Others: 10% While representing the above numbers in a pie (circle) we ‘ll allocate the area(and thus the angle) to each section in such a way that each section’s percentage value corresponds to the equivalent area in the pie. And we ll get a chart as shown below.

You must be clear about how to make a pie chart. Now we will do the reverse – try to find information from a given pie chart (which is exactly what you ‘ll be doing in exam) The below pie chart shows a typical Dhoni’s ODI innings. The numbers shows how many runs he has scored in single , twos, threes , fours and sixes.

After analyzing the above pie chart, try to answer the following questions: 1. What percentage of runs dhoni scored with threes 2. How many runs he had scored with boundaries (Note : both 6 and 4 are considered as boundaries) 3. What is the angle made by the sector representing runs scored in singles? 4. How many 6s he had hit in that innings From the graph Dhoni has scored 9 runs with threes i.e 3 threes and the total run he has scored in that particular innings is 123. So the percentage of runs Dhoni scored in 3s is 9/123 x 100 = 7.3% Answer 2: Total runs scored in boundaries = 54 + 28 = 82 Answer 3: Total runs scored in single is 8 and that is 8/123 x 100 = 6.5% of the total run. So the angle made is (6.5/100) x 360 = 23.41 degree Answer 4: Total runs in 6s =54 so number of sixes is 54/6 = 9

Chart Comparison

Pie charts are generally not recommended to visualize information instead use bar- or line chars if the quantities are important. Studies have shown that pie charts are hard to read if you actually have to answer questions about the numbers they represent. They look very pleasing and are used in a lot of places but they do not help to visualize information that well. Analytic thing person will read the percentages or values given on the legend or the chart it and analyze them in their head. This is mostly because differences in angles are not easy to judge For the human eye and there are a bunch of cases were you make the pie chart experience even worse. There are still reasons to use pie charts. Example 1:

Answer the following questions with reference to the above pie chart Q1. Of every dollar received by the federal government, how much (in cents) is from coporate sources? A. 32 B. 70 C. 30 D. 35 E. 29 Answer : 1 Q2. what percentage of the federal revenue is derived from borrowings? F. 0.2% G. 0.02% H. 2.7% I. 1.2% J. 2.5% Answer : 3 Example 2: Chart 1 shows the distribution of twelve million tonnes of crude oil transport through different modes over a specific period of time. Chart 2 shows the distribution of the cost of transporting this crude oil. The total cost was Rs. 30 million.

1.What is the cost of transporting petroleum by rail (in Rs)? 1. 2.5 2. 3.33 3. 6.4 4. 8 2.If the cost per tonne of transport by ship, air and road are represented by P, Q and R respectively, which of the following is true? 1. R > Q > P 2. P > R > Q 3. P > Q > R 4. R > P > Q 3. The cost in rupees per tonne of oil moved by rails and happens to be roughly 1. 3 2. 1.5 3. 4.5 4. 8 4. From the charts given, it appears that the cheapest mode of transport is: 1. Road 2. Rail 3. Pipeline 4. Ship 5.Which is the most effective way of transportation? 1.Road 2. Ship 3. Pipeline 4. cannot be determined 6.If for some reason ship stop sailing, by what percentage the airfreight have to go up to reach the previous level of volume transported (approximately)? 1. 75% 2. 81% 3. 85% 4 .90% If the revenue after selling the petroleum was Rs 40 Million and other costs (including oil extraction, marketing etc) is Rs 5 Million, answer the following. 7.What is the Profit percentage? 1. 10% 2. 12.5 % 3. 15% 4. 20% 8. If the cost of transportation rises by 20 % and so does revenue,what is the margin %? 1. 14.08 2. 14.28 3. 14.58 4. 14.78 9.If all costs rise by 10% and revenue remains same ,what would be the decrease in percentage profit? 1. 35 2. 50 3.70 4 .80 10. If the pipeline cost increases by 30% ,by what percentage would revenue have to be increased so as to have same amount of profit? 1. 11.5 2.12.8 3.13.75 4. 14.6 11. If the govt includes a 15% tax on transportation costs ,what would be the effective cost per tonne of petroleum so as to have the same amount of profit as before? 1. 3.2 2.3.5 3.3.7 4. 4.2 1. 2. We get 3.6/1.08=3.33 2. 3 Calculate the cost by ship, air and road. P = 3/1.08 = 2.77; Q = 2.10/1.32 = 1.58; R = 1.80/2.64 = 0.68 hence P > Q > R 3. 1 3.60/1.08 = 3.33 4. 1 Road is the cheapest, from Q 132. 5. 4 cannot be determined as e do not know on what criteria 6. 2. Air freight is 11% .it would have to increase to 20% i.e. increase by 81.81% 7. 2. 12.5 % 8. 3. 14.58 profit of 7 Million on revenue of 48 Million 9. 3. 70 % 10.4. Pipeline cost is 65%ie 19.5 Million. If this rises by 30 %, it rises by 5.85 Million .to offset this, Revenue would have to rise by the same amount, so 100 = 14.625% 11. 3. 3.7 Example 3:

Answer the following questions with reference to the above pie chart Q1. What fraction of Ghosh babu’s weight consists of muscular and skin proteins? (a) 1/13 (b) 1/30 (c) 1/20 (d) Cannot be determined Q2. Ratio of distribution of protein in muscle to the distribution of protein in skin is: (a) 3 : 1 (b) 3 : 10 (c) 1 : 3 (d) 3(1/2): 1 Q3. What percent of Ghosh babu’s body weight is made up of skin? (a)0.15 (b) 10 (c) 1.2 (d) Cannot be determined Q4. In terms of total body weight, the portion of material other than water and protein is closest to: (a)3/20 (b)1/15 (c)85/100 (d) 1/20 ANSWERS 1.(c) 2.(a) 3.(d) 4.(a) Example 4: The following pie charts give the percentage distribution of different types of employees in different departments, A, B, C, D and E.

1. What was the difference in total number of people in department A in 1999 and 2000? (1)840 (2) 400 (3) 440 (4) 240 2. In the case of which department was there a maximum variation between 1999 and 2000? (1)E (2)B (3)D (4) A 3. If 300 employees left in department B at the end of 1999, how many people joined in this department in 2000? (1) 340 (2) 460 (3) 980 (4) 1360 4. The number of employees in department D in 2000 is how many times the number of employees in department E in 1999? (1) 3.5 (2) 2.8 (3) 2.33 (4) 1.77 5. What is the percentage increase in the number of employees in department C in 1999- 2000? (1) 2% (2) 2.34% (3) 23.45% (4) None of these 6. If the average monthly salary of employees in department A in 1999 was Rs 4,000, what was the annual salary bill for department A in 1999? (1) Rs 19 lakh (2) Rs 19 crore (3) Rs 22 crore (4) Rs 22 lakh 7. If the average salary for the whole company remained same in 1999 and 2000 at the level of Rs.5,000 per month, what was the percentage increase in the salary bill for the company in the two years? (1) 4% (2) 8% (3) 9% (4) 11% ANSWERS: 1. 1 22% (18000) - 24% (20,000) 2. 3 Visually, we see D has the maximum variation. 3. 4 26% (20,000) = 23% (18,000) + 300 4. 2 20% (20,000)/8% (18,000) 5. 3 18% (18,000) to 20% (20,000) = 23.45% 6. 2 22% (18,000) 4000. 7. 4 (20 - 18)/18 = 11%


In caselets data are given in the form of paragraph. No charts/graphs are provided with the data. Caselets vary considerably in length, in the amount of information contained, in different sentences and paragraph. While reading a caselets it s always advisable to underline the important fact and figures and if necessary make your own table/chart/graphs for solving the questions. In CAT Caselets can be asked either/both in Quants and Data Interpretation section and it s similar to the Reading Comprehension part in English Usage section. The best way to mastery caslets is to practice

Example 1:

Directions for Q. 1 to 5: Refer to the following information and the answer the following questions. People Power Corporation presently employs three Managers (A, B and C) and five recruitment agents (D, E, F, G and H). The company is planning to open a new office in San Jose to manage placement of software professionals in the US. It is planning to relocate two of the three managers and three of the five recruitment agents to the office at San Jose. As it is an organization which is highly people oriented the management wants to ensure that the individuals who do not function well together should not be made as a part of the team going to the US. The following information was available to the HR department of People Power Corporation.
  • Managers A and C are at each others throat and therefore cannot be sent as a team to the new office.
  • C and E are excellent performers in their own right. However, they do not function together as a team. They should be separated.
  • D and G have had a major misunderstanding during the last office picnic. After the picnic these two have not been in speaking terms and should therefore not be sent as a team.
  • D and F are competing for a promotion that is due in another 3 months. They should not be a team.
Q1. If D goes to the new office which of the following is (are) true? I. C cannot go II. A cannot go III. H must also go (a) I only (b) II and III only (c) I and III only (d) I, II and III 2. If A is to be moved as one of the Managers, which of the following cannot be a possible working unit? (a) ABDEH (b) ABFGH (c) ABEGH (d) ABDGH 3. If C and F are moved to the new office, how many combinations are possible? (a) 4 (b) 1 (c) 3 (d) 5 4. Given the group dynamics of the Managers and the recruitment agents, which of the following is sure to find a berth in the San Jose office? (a) B (b) H (c) G (d) E 5. If C is sent to the San Jose office which member of the staff cannot go with C? (a) B (b) D (c) G (d) F ANSWERS: 1. (c) 2. (d) 3. (b) 4. (a) 5. (b)

Example 2

Ghosh Babu took voluntary retirement in Dec. 1991 and received a certain amount of money as retirement benefits. On Jan 1, 1992, he invested the entire amount in shares. At the end of the month, he sold all his shares and realised 25% profit. On Feb 1, he reinvested the entire amount in shares which he sold at the end of the month at a loss of 20%. Again, he invested the entire amount on Mar 1 in a new company. At the end of the month, he sold the new company to a friend and realised a profit of 20% in the process. He invested the entire amount in shares on Apr 1, which he sold at the end of the month for Rs. 1,08,000 incurring a loss of 10%. 1. What is the amount of retirement benefits received by Ghosh Babu? a) Rs. 1,08,000 b) Rs. 1,25,000 c) Rs. 1,20,000 d) Rs. 1,00,000 2. The percentage profit received by Ghosh Babu between Jan 1 and Apr 30 is: a) 8.00% b) 15.00% c) - 10.00% d) None of these 3. The amount of loss incurred by Ghosh Babu based on his operation in Apr 1992 is: a) Rs. 25,000 b) Rs. 12,000 c) Rs. 20,000 d) Rs. 8,000 4. The maximum amount invested by Ghosh Babu in any one month was in: a) January b) February c) March d) April Answers: 1. d Let the amount received by Ghosh Babu in Dec. 1991 be Rs. x, as retirement benefits: Therefore, investment in the month of Jan 1992 = 100 Profit of 25% at the end of Jan 1992. Hence, investment in the month of Feb 1992 = 125 Loss of 20% at the end of Feb 1992 Hence, investment in the month of March 1992 = 100 Profit of 20% at the end of March 1992 Hence, investment in the month of April 1992 = 120 Loss of 10% at the end of April 1992 Therefore the amount left at the end of April 1992 = 108 Amount at the end of April 1002 = Rs. 1,08,000 Therefore, simply equating figures, he would have started with Rs 1,00,000 2. a % Profit between Jan 1 and Apr 30 = (1.08x - x/x) X 100 3. b Investment in the month of April = Rs. 1,20,000 Amount received at end of April = Rs. 1,08,000 Therefore, Loss = Rs. 12,000 4. b Maximum amount invested by Ghosh Babu is in the month of February = Rs. 1,25,000